world culture discussion Academic Help

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Each week you will be given three or four questions pertaining to important topics covered in the materials provided in the question itself, the textbook, the lectures, the other materials provided, and my comments in my Live Session. You choose the one you like and post a response of 125 words or more. You also need to respond to another post from one of your fellow students. This second post should be at least 60 or so words long and should not just agree with or repeat what has been said.

Please use an example that has not already been used in the discussion.

1. Compare Beethoven to one other Romantic composer writing music between 1790 and 1860. Use a specific composition by each and explain why Classical music is different from Romantic music. Here are several examples.

This week’s eight music selections all relate to chapter 27, pp. 907-913.

  1. Ludwig van Beethoven’s Eroica: In this week’s readings (chaps. 27-28), we encounter a number of musical pieces, all of them covered in chapter 27, pp. 907-913. On pp. 907 and 909, there is a brief discussion of Beethoven’s Eroica (Italian for “Heroic”), formally called Symphony No. 3 in E-Flat. This was first performed in 1804 and was composed in the 2 or 3 years leading up to that, a time when he was wrestling with increasing deafness and depression (pp. 908-909). Beethoven personally embraced the ideals of the French Revolution and at some point seemed to admire Napoleon greatly. So much so that at some point Napoleon’s name was in the title of this work and the work’s dedication was to him. But, Beethoven changed this and renamed it Eroica and removed the dedication to Napoleon. One account says this was because of his disenchantment with Napoleon’s autocratic drift, as especially revealed when Napoleon finally proclaimed himself “Emperor”, a move Beethoven despised. See and . Perhaps Beethoven’s reasons for the change were more pragmatic. In any case, the result was this masterpiece, which changed the direction of music forever. This work is considered transitional from the CLASSICAL style of music perfected by Haydn and Mozart in the late 1700s to the ROMANTIC style of music that would prevail for most of the 1800s.

The first clip below is a 10-minute clip of the first movement. The second is a clip of the second movement which shows short clips of it in three different versions. Note: Beethoven composed this for a bigger symphony orchestra and made it a much longer work than anything done by Haydn and Mozart. His work is also much more charged with emotion and drama and change. Enjoy the following links

Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 (“Eroica“), 1st Movement

Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 (“Eroica“), 2nd Movement


  1. Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony: On pp. 909-910 (chap. 27), we encounter a discussion of Beethoven’s famous Fifth Symphony, first performed in 1808. Read the description carefully and give this a listen:

Beethoven: Symphony No. 5, 1st Movement


  1. Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 30, E major, Op. 109 : Read about this beautiful piano composition on p. 910. Then, give this a listen:

Beethoven: Sonata No. 30, E Major, Op. 109, 1st Movement


  1. Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, Ode to Joy: On pp. 910-911 (in chap. 27), there is a fine discussion of Beethoven’s crowning work, his Ninth Symphony, first performed in 1824. (Beethoven died in 1827). Note his innovation of combining a vocal chorus as part of this symphonic work.

In the YouTube below, Leonard Bernstein introduces Beethoven and this particular work. If you wish to get right to the music, fast forward (click and drag) to the 3:37 mark. Bernstein is conducting the Vienna Philharmonic. Give this a listen:

Beethoven: Symphony No. 9, in D Minor, Ode to Joy


  1. Hector Berlioz, Symphony Fantastique: This is discussed on pp. 911-912 (in chap. 27). This grand work is often presented as the great example of the ROMANTIC style of music in the 1800s, a style that is emotional and given to drama. It was composed in 1830. Berlioz did this in a grandiose manner. Read carefully pp. 911-912 about “program music” and the idée fixe (“fixed idea”) as they relate to this work. You realize that a dramatic story is being told, not just a change of mood. Listen to the following clips.

Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 1st Movement

Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 4th Movement (March to the Scaffold; artist hallucinates)

Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 5th Movement (Dream of a Witches Sabbath)


  1. Felix Mendelssohn, Concerto in E Minor for Violin: This work was composed in 1844. Read carefully p. 912 (in chap. 27) and note the skill required on the part of a violinist to play this. Sarah Chang will do this in the YouTube below. Then, give this a listen:

Mendelssohn: Concerto in E minor for Violin


  1. Robert Schumann, Widmung (=Dedication): This is an example of a lied (plural= lieder ) of the Romantic style in the mid-1800s, which were normally songs for a solo voice with a piano. Read carefully pp. 912-913 (in chap. 27). Schumann composed the music for this in 1840 to celebrate his wedding. His wife, Clara Schumann, not only inspired some great compositions, she became a well known piano virtuoso. One of the links below has the German lyric and translation. Watch and listen to the great Jessye Norman sing this in German:

Robert Schumann: Widmung (Dedication) sung by Jessye Norman


  1. Frederic Chopin, Fantasie Impromptu: Chopin (pronounce SHOH-pan) composed this Romantic style work for the piano. Read carefully p. 913 (in chap. 27) about this work and how it exemplifies Romantic style musicianship. Note the tempo changes. Then, give this a listen:

Chopin: Fantasie Impromtu

2. Compare an English author or poet from the years 1790 to 1860 to Henry David Thoreau or Ralph Waldo Emerson.Why are these writers called “Romantic”?Use the historian’s definition of “Romantic” to answer that. What do they have to say about the Industrial Revolution versus Nature?

3. When the French Revolution ended with Napoleon’s becoming Emperor, many European Romantics lost faith in the Enlightenment ideas that had driven the growth of democracy in America and Europe.Napoleon was seen as a symbol of that failure but he was also the archenemy of the English.They fought him wherever they could find him.Give one example of the impact Napoleon Bonaparte had on Europe and one example of his impact on the rest of the world.Where besides Europe did Napoleon fight the English?

4. Between 1790 and 1860 American colonists and the government of the United States pushed Native Americans ever further to the West.Many great painters documented their lives and the beautiful American landscapes in which they lived. They were building on a great tradition of English landscape painters from the same period. Compare one landscape artist whose work was mostly in America to one of the great English landscape artists of the time.Who do you think they were painting for and what was their message?

How to Improve Your Score with Discussion Boards

With the first week of Discussion Boards in front of us, it is a good time to pause and reflect before moving forward. If the score is the only thing you look at and moved on, you are doing yourself a disservice. Read the feedback and consider why you lost points, to prevent the same thing happening week after week.

Here are a few common mistakes to avoid:

  1. Not writing enough. This is a writing class. You are expected to read and listen to the materials, analyze and write an understandable response that covers the subject and answers the questions. Use complete sentences, as these are not short-answer questions. You might need to do a bit of extra research.
  2. Cite your sources at the end of the initial post. Never cut-and-paste materials from sources. We want to see your thoughts and not those of others. If you summarize someone else’s thoughts or you use a direct quote, cite them. With assignments of this length, do not use long quotes. A short phrase is the maximum.
  3. If your response to your classmates is “Great post!” “I agree with you!” are all you write, then you will not get points. Read their posts and find something they say that you can comment on. You can agree or disagree but provide evidence to prove your claims. The length here is important as well. Say something interesting that relates to the subject. Again, if you use outside sources, cite them.
  4. Make sure your comments are organized, relate to the subject and make sense.
  5. Check grammar, spelling, sentence structure, etc. As a college student, mistakes in these areas should not be present in your writing. When they are present, go back and review and learn why you made the mistake, so that you will not make them next time.
  6. When you have completed your post, before you post it, re-read and edit it. You send your best work to be graded. Grading should not be an editing service, but a confirmation of your hard work. You are not done and should not post until you have edited your work for errors.
  7. As a southerner, I often tell myself…Self, you cannot write the way you speak. Use your formal voice, with correct grammar and diction. To be honest, I was born a redneck, but I work hard to keep it under wraps in my writing. Writing well will become one of the greatest skills you can develop, but it takes constant work.
  8. Try to check and respond to your classmates throughout the week. Read my responses to your classmates as well. You will find that the give and take of the responses will add much to your understanding.

Hopefully, these thoughts will help. Go through this process each week after grades are posted. It is always about continual improvement. I often say that for any of us, there is no finish line in writing. We will work to improve throughout our lives. Dr. Mike

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